30 Uncommon Filipino Words

August month is known as ” Buwan ng Wika” Language Month with this year’s theme focuses on Wika ng Kasaysayan, Kasaysayan ng Wika” Ang Katutubong Wika sa Maka-Filipinong Bayanihan Kontra Pandemya for 2020. image

Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino is forefront in the research in the development of the language.

30 Uncommon Filipino Words:

30.) Balintok ( larvae of mosquitoes, often called wriggler) common word use is kiti-kiti.

29.) Dagibalniing liboy  (Electromagnetic wave)

28.) Initsigan (thermodynamics)

27.) Danumsigwasan (hydraulics)

26.) Sipnayan (mathematics) the more common term is matematika or matematica which was borrowed from Spanish language.

25.) Haynayan (biology) common term used is biyolohiya

24.) Karumalan (menstrual period) common term used is “regla“.

23.) Panghibayo (amplifier)

22.) Pook-sapot (website) although some local Filipino teacher would write websayt borrowed from English language

21.) Sulatroniko ( email ) more commonly use in Filipino language which was borrowed from the English language.

20.) Yakis ( to sharpen ) common tern is pagtutulis

19.) Pang-ulong hatinig  ( head set)

18.) Panginain (browser)

17.) Pantabay ( charger)

16.) Miktinig ( microphone)

15.)  Kawingan ( hyperlink)

14.) Duyog ( eclipse ) common word use is eklipse borrowed from English language.

13.) Isang Yuta ( hundred thousand) commonly used term is Isang daang libo or daang libo.

12.) Isang Angaw ( one million) common term is isang milyon from Spanish word.

11.) Isang Kati ( ten million) sampung milyon

10.) Isang Bahala ( one hundred million) isang daan milyon

9.) Isang Gatos ( one billion ) common word used is isang bilyon

8.) Sukgisan ( geometry) common word is heometriya

7.) Pahimakas ( last farewell) Common word use is aalis or yayao

6.) Alimusom ( scent) common word “amoy”

5.) Sambat ( fork) common word used is tinidor borrowed from Spanish word tenedor.

4.) Asik-asik ( drizzle) common word used is “ambon” or “tinik-tinik”

3.) Kuribkib (nervous) common word used nerbiyos

2.) Liknayan ( physics) from Likas -Hanayan. The common words use are pisika or físics

1.) Kapnayan ( chemistry) from Sangkap-Hanayan. The common words used are kimiko or kémistri.


UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino 2015

Talatinginan :Talasalitaaan; Pilipino-Pilipino tinipon at inilathala nina Bartolome del valle, Melania Jimenez del Valle (Copyright 1969) National Bookstore

Rosario P. Mem Singh et all (2015)Isa -Jecho Publishing Inc.,Diksyunaryong Filipino-Filipino : Talatinginan Talasalitaan. Pages 196, ISBN:978-971-610-096-9

Rafael, Vicente L. (1988) Contracting Colonialism – Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society under Spanish Rule.

PIA- Philippine Information Agency

Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino

DOST- Department of Science and Technology

Bagong Talasalitaan :Tagalog-English-English-Tagalog :(1994),Merriam Editorial Staff & Luis S. Santos, ISBN : 978-971-3003-25-6


Traditional Philippine Games issued by PHLPOST

Philippine traditional games which are dubbed called “Larong Atin!. The stamps were designed by graphic artists Mr. Rodine Teodoro and Ms. Eunice Beatrix Dabu, features traditional games such as bato-bato-pik or jack-en-poy (rock-paper-scissors), bahay-bahayan (play house), luksong tinik (thorn hurdles) and trumpo (spinning top). These are commonly played by many Filipino kids all over the country.

The stamps were issued by Philippine Postal Corporation in celebration with Filipino Heritage Festival.

Significance of Larong Atin Stamps


We also share the advocacy of preserving Filipino heritage in collaboration with the National Commission for Culture and the Arts and the Filipino Heritage Festival, Inc.,” Postmaster General Joel Otarra said.

Technical Description

The postal service printed 100,000 copies sold for P12 to P17 each. 5,000 pieces of limited souvenir sheets were printed, which were priced at P100 each. There will be a first day cover too available.

Stamp collectors can order online at http://www.phlpost.gov.ph or 8527-0132/85270108.

25 Basic Do and Don’t During Hungry Ghost Month

Hungry Ghost Month is one of the most inauspicious month of the lunar calendar in Chinese, Filipino-Chinese all over the world.

This usually takes place in the 7th month of the Chinese lunar calendar. The highlight of the inauspicious month is ” The Hungry Ghost Festival,’ which occurs on the 15th day of the 7th lunar month.


Chinese Hungry Ghost month

The Ghost month begins on August 19 and ends on September 16, 2020. There are several superstitious belief which were associated during the entire month of celebration.

25 Basic Do and Don’t During Ghost Month

25.) Visit to Chinese/ Taoist/ Buddhist temple. This is to seek protection during the entire ghost month. Some Buddhists/ Taoists will also visit the remains of their dead relative enshrined in columbary units or in temples to ask for guidance and blessing. This is also the time to receive amulets or bracelets blessed by Taoist monks or Buddhist priests in a special ceremony according to one’s Chinese zodiac sign.

24.) Refrain from opening new business during the duration of ghost month.

23.) Starting construction,opening bank accounts,signing contracts, major surgical operations,starting construction, celebrations, purchasing new furniture, buying dolls, puppets and moving out are usually postpone until after the ghost month.

22.) Travel into far flung places and wilderness is avoided – People are advise to avoid going to lakes, beaches, waterfall, rivers, mountain hiking or far places. This is not to offend the wandering ghost or unseen spirits which may dwell on these places.

21.) Wearing of bright colors like red, pink, fushia,magenta or dark colors like navy blue, gray and brown. Avoid these colors for they are considered inauspicious during this month. This is also generally practice by those who have relatives or close friends who died away within two- year time period. Some people also do not visit barbershop or salon to fix their hair, cutting of hair even nails during this month.

20.) Avoid Hanging Clothes Overnight – Wandering spirits may inadvertently enter one’s home.

19.) Avoid putting wind chimes around your home or property – The sound of metals clanking during the hungry ghost month may signal to spirits that your house is open to visitors. This can also attracts negative chi into your home or establishment.

18.) Avoid open umbrella inside home or buildings– unseen ethereal being may take refuge under them during this time. Bright colored umbrellas such as red, brown, grey or black must be avoided. Try to wipe your umbrellas dry for just a little while and close as soon as you can before entering one’s home or building. One may also leave one’s umbrella in the patio area.

17.) Do not leave the front door open – Do not leave front door open for a long period of time.This can invite negative chi or ethereal spirits into your home or building. Keep the negative energy out by keeping your doors closed. Some people will not enter the main door and will only use the side door or doors at the back to enter one’s home or establishment.

16.) Women and Men are discourage to wear high heel shoes– When a person feet are elevated from the ground, the person vulnerable to being possessed by spirits through the heels. Try to wear footwear without heels as much as possible.

15.) Avoid going outside after sunset -People are advise to stay indoor after sunset or avoid staying outdoors until dawn is observe in many Asian countries. Some will not go out by 12:00 midnight. This will avoid contact with any wandering spirit or offending unseen ghost in the dark. Some of which may cast misfortune or misery to anyone who might be offending them.

14.) Avoid killing insects inside home or building – This is specific to moths, butterflies, grasshoppers,crickets,dragon fly which are found within one’s home. These are considered as messenger by one’s ancestor or recently decease relatives who may opt to visit.

13.) Avoid sweeping floors and washing clothes during night time for the entire duration of the ghost month. This is like an open invitation to all the wandering ghosts that they can stay in your home or building by providing environment.

12.) Consulting the Dead and Deities– This is the best time to consult the dead “Pwa-pwe” by throwing the “Jiaobei“/ Moon Blocks/ Poe to the floor, (a pair of half-circle red wood or black wood, to ask the deceased if they are done with their feast).


Jiaobei or Moon Blocks/ Poe 

11.) If the Pwa-Pwe comes out as “No” / “Maybe”, come back for a few more minutes and try again. If it comes out as “Yes”, burn first the gold joss paper of the gods then followed by the silver joss paper of the deceased.

Moon blocks are also used to verify a range of issues, such as proper ritual protocol, spiritual presence of the gods or if they have eaten the offerings presented to them.

10.) Different offering date for the recently decease relatives and those who died  three years or more. 

Proper schedule and offering is strictly observe for those who have relatives who died within the two year period. People normally offer favorite food, burn personal belonging,burn joss paper money or joss paper crafts should be done on September 1, 2020 ( July 14th lunar calendar), a day before the Hungry Ghost Festival. The burnt objects and offerings are normally use and eaten by dead relatives in the afterlife.

Those who have decease relatives three years or more can prepare offering during the day of the Hungry Ghost Day on September 2, 2020 (July 15th lunar calendar). The spirit of the dead will be visiting their families, feasting and looking for victims during this period. While the ghosts are roaming, people are expected to offer sacrifices to their deceased ancestors and relatives during these dates.

9.) Offering to Ho Hia Ti must be done by September 2, 2020 on the date of the Hungry Ghost. Avoid saying the Chinese term for ghost “gue” or ” guizi” but usually refer to them as good buddies or good brothers.  The term is equivalent is “ho heng tai” in Cantonese ,” hao  xiong di” in Mandarin or “ho hia ti” in Hokkien.

8.) Avoid offering food and dishes must not be hot, otherwise the wandering ghost can not eat properly.

7.) Do Not Leave Chopsticks standing upright in your bowl. It is considered taboo in many East Asian countries. The position resembles joss sticks for the dead. Hungry ghosts may mistake your food as offerings and take over your body to consume it. The only time one will put the chopstick upright is during the offering of food.

6.) Offering of round fruits in odd numbers (3 of a kind, 5 of a kind, etc.). Examples are apples, pear, oranges, pomelo. Avoid offering fruits like lansones, figs, guavas must be avoided. ( Those fruits which seeds passes in the gut of birds or bats and can germinate). Noodles can also be offered; however, it must be either bihon, pancit canton, misua or sotanghon only. Avoid offering birthday noodles since it is reserve for celebration.


incense sticks- Photo courtesy of pixabay user: Ms.trixie-429304

5.) Color Coding for Incenses and Candles- Maroon/ Red colored incense is offered for those decease relatives who died at least three years or more. Yellow/ Brown colored incense for those with decease ancestors who died less than two years.

Candles ( white for first year, yellow for second year and red/ pink/ magenta for those with dead relatives who died three years or more.) It is normally waived for those decease relatives who died ages 100 or more- They can offer maroon/ red candles or maroon incense.

4.) Burning Hell Banknotes / Ghost Paper Money or Joss Paper.

Hell Banknotes/ Ghost Paper Money/ Joss Paper are burn after consulting the moon block. The joss paper are burn on a special color coded silver and gold can containers on the sidewalk in front of your house or store. One must wait until past lunchtime between 1:00 or 2:00 o’clock in the afternoon when the day is at its hottest. There is no limit to how many joss paper money offering to your ancestors or guardians of hell.It is believe that the joss money is use by dead relative in the afterlife, while the kim joss money is use to bribe the guardians of the underworld.

Silver colored (Gun) joss can containers are for the dead relatives, While the gold colored ( Kim) joss can containers are reserve for the deities or guardian of the hell.

3.) Offering an odd number of a kind of food to the lost spirit or wandering ghost inside their garage in front of their gate. Try to offer even number of incense/joss sticks for the deceased (two sticks per ancestor). Use three maroon incense/joss sticks for each of the Gods.

Try to light stick one incense per food. Use a joss paper called, “Kwa-Kim”, a special joss paper that is wrapped in newspaper, it can be bought at all Chinese specialty stores. A small table for To Ti Kong/ Tudi Gong (Earth God/ Lord of the Place) on the right side (facing the gate) beside the offering table for must also be displayed.

Try to clean up the offering at the ancestor’s altar after burning all the joss paper and enjoy the food that has been offered. This will bring the luck to the people offering the food.

2.) Do not consume the offering until after the joss sticks lights are out and joss papers are completely burn. This will give time for the ghost to eat.

1.) On the Night of “The Hungry Ghost Day” people in China and Chinese communities around the world write the names of their deceased relatives on paper lanterns (usually shaped like a lotus flower) with a candle inside. The lanterns are floated down the river in the belief that lost ghosts will follow them and find their way home. Few people practice this in the country. Some will also light firecrackers to scare away evil spirits.

These are just a few of the do and don’t which were practice by Tsinoys/ Chinoys/ Filipino-Chinese during the Hungry Ghost Month.

Sources, References and Bibliography:

Personal interviews with Mr. Lebon Ong, Mrs. Felicidad Chua, Master Go Eng Lo and Mrs. Lily Ang

Williams, Paul (2005). Buddhism: Buddhism in South and Southeast Asia. ISBN 9780415332330.

Teiser, Stephen F. (1988), The Ghost Festival in Medieval China, Princeton: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-02677-0.

Lin, Ed ; Hardcover, 336 pages, Published July 29th 2014 by Soho Crime, ISBN: 1616953268

Buswell, Robert E (2004). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 21. ISBN 978-0028659107.


8 Practical Tips on How to Take Care of Portulaca Grandiflora hybrids

Portulaca Grandiflora popularly known at a variety of names which includes portulaca, sun rose, sun plant,moss rose, rose moss,moss-rose purslane,alembong,time flower,clock flower,table rose, Japanese rose, Vietnam rose, Mexican rose. Portulaca plants are native to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay.

In India,Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Philippines growers sometimes call them nine o’ clock flower,ten o’ clock flower or eleven o’ clock flower because the flowers open fully during this time. While in some parts of Latin America and in the country, Backyard hobbyists call this as flores alas diez which refers to the time the flowers open fully.

They have several species and colorful hybrids which looked like miniature roses.


photo courtesy of pixabay:BarBus ( single petal variety)

Portulaca Grandiflora hybrids was introduced into the country in the late 1940’s. About that time there were several venereal diseases which spread in the country. One of which is Syphilis nicknamed (Vietnam Rose). Whether the name is related to this is open for argumentation.

Another story from an old time plant collector said that they acquired cutting which was introduced from Vietnam in the early 1950’s to mid-1960’s thus getting the name. It was common garden plant. The hybrids have single petal or multiple petals varieties.

It is favorite flowering annual plant in many countries in United States, Canada, Southern Asia, Southeast Asia, Taiwan, Latin America and Mediterranean region.

carnation color (multiple petal variety)

8 Practical Tips on How to Take Care of Portulaca Grandiflora hybrids

8.) Propagation – The most common way to propagate Vietnam rose / Mexican rose / Japanese rose/ Sun Rose/ Moss Ross Purslane/ Portulaca is by cuttings and by seeds. Try to remove any buds or developing flower in the stem so that the plant can conserve its energy in producing roots. Seeds can take longer to grow.

7.) Water Requirement-Rose Moss is all time favorite among backyard hobbyists,local landscapers would plant portulaca hybrids in man made grotto,cement containers, terracotta pots, soft-drink plastic containers and as hanging pots. In United States, Canada and Latin America, portulacas are use as hedge plant and planted en masse.

6.) Lots of Sunlight- Vietnam rose needs between six to ten hours of sun to reach their flowering potential. If you try to grow portulaca in a shady area, their growth will be limpy and will have some difficulty in producing flowers. One will also notice that flowers are minimal and close early in late afternoon and on cloudy days.

5.) Soil- The preferred ones are a combination of 30% loam soil with the rest includes combination of compost, sand,pumice,aged cow or carabao dung,aged rice hull, bits of crush charcoal and coco coir.

4.) Temperature and Humidity – A native of Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina, moss rose likes heat and can tolerate dry conditions. It is commonly used for xeriscaping, hanging plant, hedge or as focal point in pocket garden. In the Philippines, This is popular in many community garden, public schools, pocket garden, vertical garden and hedge plant.


pink with shades of magenta ( multiple petal variety)

3.) Fertilizer- One can fertilize using any brand of water soluble fertilize 20N-20P-20K diluted between 1/2 to 1/4 strength sprayed over the foliage after watering on a weekly basis during their growing season. One can also put some slow release fertilize for those who cannot tend their garden in a weekly basis. Small amount of trace elements, calcium nitrate and epsom salt to boost its growth and blooms during rainy season. One can also add compost or vermicast which can also help in retaining soil moisture and nutrients.

Another good option is application of Naturamin which can help the ornamental plant to overcome stress like (sprouting, drought, pests and diseases). Try to dilute 3 grams per liter for matured plants. Once to twice a week spray in leaves and in parts of the plant.

Naturamin is available in Harbest Agricultural Business Corporation in Pasig and also had outlets located in Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao region.

Address: Harbest Main Office – No.5 Rosemarie Lane Brgy. Kapitolyo Pasig City Metro Manila.

Telephone : 6717411 to 14 Fax 671-22-32


dark magenta color (multiple petal variety)

2.) Varieties – There are several hybrids available in the market. Varieties includes Afternoon Delight which flowers stays longer and even blooms up to nigh time, Yubi series, Fairy Tale series among others. A lot of the seeds packs and cutting are sold in several online stores and price ranges from Php 30 ( seeds pack) to Php 200 for several cuttings.

1.) Pests- Try to regularly check for caterpillars, aphids,mealy bugs, slugs and snails. During rainy season, Botrytis blight or gray mold is a fungus disease can kill the plant. The disease can affect leaves, stems, flowers, seeds or any part of the plant except the root. Brown spots and gray spores of dead tissue form on the plant. The best way to avoid getting the disease is by regular inspection of the plant and sterilization of cutting tools before using them.

Sources, References and Bibliography

Personal interview with backyard growers.

Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.

Missouri Botanical Garden: http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org

Madulid, Domingo; Winner, National Book Award, Science, 1995. Revised Edition, 2000 with 388 pages. Portulaceae pages 307 to 308, Bookmark, Makati, A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants.

Steiner, Mona Lisa, PHD;Care, M &L Licudine Enterprises, First Edition 1952, Second Edition 1960, Third Edition 1986, Atlag, Malolos , Bulacan. PURSLANE-Portulaca Family (PORTULACA Family) Page 193 to 194, Philippine Ornamental Plants And Their Care.

Kew Gardens: https://www.kew.org/

8 Practical Tips For Caring Hibiscus During Rainy Season

Hibiscus locally called as Gumamela is one of the top 10 all time favorite flowering shrub in the country. Growers can encounter some problems during rainy or wet season in the Philippines.


The most common colors are red, pink, yellow,magenta and intermediate colors. There are some native hibiscus in the country, While hundreds of hybrids origin being cultivated in many homes, public parks, cemeteries, schools, resorts and estates. The flowers does not last long, most of the hybrid cultivars only last for a day or so.


Hibiscus rosa-sinensis hybrid or Gumamelang Pula planted as hedge plant within Manila Memorial Park

Some Feng Shui practitioners recommend planting reddish color, bright yellow color gumamela. Depending on the position of one’s property to create harmony in colors and balance within the household.


double petal pink Gumamela  ( photo courtesy of King Louis Farm and Sir Lebon Ong)

8 Practical Tips for Caring Hibiscus /Gumamela


yellow color 

8.) One can grow their gumamela / hibiscus directly on garden plot or in potted terracotta/ plastic containers. This allows growers to move the containers in ideal location or focal point in one’s home or office when the plant is in bloom. Providing at between 6 to 8 hours of sunlight.


Hibiscus Taiwan Cloud Cotton

7.) Gumamela requires 50% loam/garden/brown soil with combination of 20% sandy mix, 30% compost, aged cow or carabao manure, aged rice hull, coco coir and vermicast for the rest of the potting mixture. Mulching is recommended for gumamela planted outdoors because it not only provides a lot of protection for the roots, but it also helps the plant retain the moisture, especially if grown in garden type setting.


peach color

6.) Fertilize weekly using a variety of water soluble fertilizer 20N, 20P, 20K or 10N-10P-10K, (whichever is available) diluted into 1/2 or 1/4 strength during its growing season or flowering season. One may add few teaspoon of slow release fertilizer or compost mixture as fertilizer for the plant. For blooming gumamela plants, a ratio of 20N-30P-30K water soluble fertilizer, trace elements, calcium nitrate, epson salt can also be applied alternately.

Another good brand is Naturamin which enables hibiscus or gumamela to absorb the nutrients. This is also good in other plants like Syngonium podophyllum, flowering plants, orchids, crops and fruits trees.

Avoid using skim milk, beer, Monosodium glutamate (MSG), urine or any home base fertilizer mixture as these can eventually kill your Gumamela or Hibiscus in no time.


tangerine color

5.) Regular pruning is also required when the shrub grow lush during rainy season. One can schedule a monthly pruning period. Try to sterilize your pruning shears, knife or cutter before using them.

4.) Try to regular check for pest such as aphids, white flies, scale insects, mealybugs, caterpillars, thrips or even spider mites. These insects can eat parts of the flowers, leaves or stems of gumamela.


3.) Potted hibiscus / gumamela plant with flowers can be enjoyed for a limited time period. Interior decorator suggest that one can put them inside their homes between 1 to 3 days. Near windows where there is bright light.

a humidity tray if you have dry air conditions inside of your house to ensure the plant is getting all of the moisture it needs to thrive.


single petal yellow variety

2.) Propagation is quite easy. One can propagate via cuttings, air layering or seeds during the onset of the rainy season, or when one prunes their gumamela shrub. Find a node and cut about six-inches below that and then remove everything except the very top leaves. Another way is to graft different colored gumamela.

1.) Avoid over watering, Especially during this rainy season. This can cause a lot of problems like root rotting and fungal problems. When in doubt, one can forgo watering for at least a day or so. Gumamela needed well- drained soil if planted in garden type setting.


pale pink form

Economic Importance and Ethno Botanical Uses


Hibiscus Red Double

Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea while Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia. Hibiscus brackenridgei is the state flower of Hawaii, While it is a national symbol in Haiti, Solomon and Niue.

Hibiscus, Gumamela, Rose Mallow or Rose of Sharon and hybrids are commonly use to beautify the landscape.  Blooming gumamela can also serves as focal point in one’s office or public area.

The flowers is used by children in many parts of the country as part of a bubble-making pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed until the sticky juices come out, adding 1 tablespoon detergent to make bubble.

Some would use the flowers to make edible flower salad. Flowers and young leaves are also use by some for their medicinal properties. In some parts of the country, flowers are use for offering in home altars and as lei for welcoming guests.


Hibiscus manihot or Abelmoschus manihot

Abelmoschus manihot formerly known as Hibiscus manihot is eaten in ( Quezon / Tayabas area) called Sapinit, Lagikuway. Bicol region and some parts of Ilocos region. Some Visayan provinces also use the flowers for souring agent in soup. In Surigao provinces it is called Lagikway, Lagikuway,Baniwayun. It is called Malaguhon / Malaguhun ( Han.) and Linikway/ Barakue ( Bng) Glikway/ Gikugguse (Sub) in other Philippine languages.

The flower is used as souring ingredient or add on for local vegetables, soup or meat dishes. The dish had a slippery texture like okra.

Although not so common within Metro Manila region. This species grow in semi-wild state in open grassland,cultivated fields and in rural areas all throughout the country.

University of the Philippines Los Baños had been active in breeding hibiscus and came up with several series which pay tributes to great women of the country.


Php 8.00 block of 4, Gumamela flowers issued by Philippine Postal Corporation in 1991

Philippine Postal Corporation released several definitive and special stamps in 1991, 2015 and 2018. This is a proof that gumamela or hibiscus is popular among thematic stamp collectors. Some mural painters also painted on the long perimeter wall of Manila North Cemetery last October 2019 dubbed as ” Flores para Los Muertos“.


yellow with red center

Hibiscus tea is an herbal tea made as an infusion from crimson or deep magenta-colored calyces (sepals) of the roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa flower. Sometimes called Karkade tea or Jamaica tea.


Hibiscus sabdariffa popularly known as Roselle- grown by the author from seeds

There are also several Fb groups which specializes in Hibiscus or Gumamela.

Gumamela plants and hybrids are commonly available in many garden centers like in Tabang, Guiguinto,Bulacan Garden,Bay,Calamba,Los Baños in Laguna, Silang, Cavite province, Mindanao Avenue Garden Center, Araneta Farmer’s Garden, Quezon City Memorial Circle,White Plains garden center,Neopolitan, Fairview, Rona’s Garden in Visayas Avenue,Cartimar Garden Center in Pasay, Centris Sunday Market, neighborhood homes and backyard nationwide.

Some big time propagators includes Pagsolingan Garden, Arids and Aroid, Bulacan Garden, Mr. Rey Tester among others.

References, Sources, Bibliography:

Interview and photo courtesy of the following: King Louis, Mr. Rodrigo Joseph Bautista, Mr.Lebon Ong, Arids Aroid, Mac Pagsolingan,Mr. Rey Tester, Ms. Naida Delma and the author

Personal interview with backyard growers, hobbyists and farm owners.

Wonning, Paul R. (March 3, 2014) Gardener’s Guide To The Hibiscus: Perennial Hibiscus Flower Care ( ( Gardener”s Guide to the Full Sun Perennial Flower Garden Book 12) Mossy Feet Books.

V. M. Jadhav et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(8),1220-1222

University of the Philippines Los Baños : https://ovcre.uplb.edu.ph/

Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607

Steiner, Mona Lisa, PHD;Care, M &L Licudine Enterprises, First Edition 1952, Second Edition 1960, Third Edition 1986, Atlag, Malolos , Bulacan. Gumamela Family (Malvaceae) pages 173 to 174, Philippine Ornamental Plants And Their Care.

Madulid, Domingo; Winner, National Book Award, Science, 1995. Revised Edition, 2000 with 388 pages. Malvaceae pages 240 to 244 Bookmark, Makati, A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants.

Lawton, Barbara Perry (2004). Hibiscus: Hardy and Tropical Plants for the Garden. Timber Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-88192-65-45.

International Hibiscus Society

C Les Beers & Jim Howie: Growing Hibiscus (1985 and 1990), Reprinted 1986, 1987
Second edition published 1990, First published in 1985 by Kangaroo Press Pty Ltd
3 Whitehall Road (P. 0. Box 75) Kenthurst 2156, Typeset by G. T Setters Pty Limited
Printed in Hong Kong by Colorcraft Ltd, ISBN 0 86417 278 8

Brickell, Christopher, ed. (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 534. ISBN 978-14053329-65

Bulacan Garden Corporation

American Hibiscus Society

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