25 Common Water and Aquatic Plants Grown in the Philippines

Philippines is an archipelago with hundreds of creeks, stream, lakes, river and water system. Water plants are plenty and the country is rich in biodiversity. However some of the commonly grown water plants are introduced to the country.

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Freshwater Aquarium set-up by: Mr. Achilles Antiquina Lussier

They are classified into Emergent, Submerged, Floating-leaved, Free-floating. Our team made a short list of 25 common water plants grown or found in semi-naturalized state.

We eliminated Ipomea aquatica or Kangkong / Kangkung, since it is used as food. Better  post in another topic

25 Common Water Plants

25.) Ludwigia sedoides – commonly called Mosaic plant, False Loosestrife. This water plant originates from Brazil, Venezuela. This had become naturalized in many tropical, sub-tropical and even temperate countries.This blooms during June to August which coincide with the rainy season, But this may also bloom during the dry season. Some sell this from Php 50.00 small plant to as much as Php 200 in some online sites.

24.) Myriophyllum aquaticum commonly called parrot’s-feather and parrot feather watermilfoil. Parrot feather gets its name from its feather-like leaves that are arranged around the stem in whorls of four to six. This water plant originally is native of South America and quickly spread via the tropical aquarium trade in North America and elsewhere.

In some countries, Like the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, Southern United States.  parrot’s-feather can quickly clogged waterways and ponds. The growth can block sunlight and cause native plants to die because of light deficiency. The organisms that feed on the native plants can die off due to starvation.

This is also commonly sold in Cartimar and in many aquarium pet stores all over the country.

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photo courtesy of pixabay : johnnykarlsson1-5486868

23.) Limnobium laevigatum is a floating plant commonly called West Indian spongeplant, South American spongeplant and Amazon or smooth frogbit. This floating plant is native to Central and South America and quickly spread all over the tropical and sub-tropical areas due to aquarium plant trade.

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Cypreus alterniflolius

photo courtesy of : pixabay: jaclou-dl-5602247

22.) Cyperus alternifolius, common names are umbrella papyrus, umbrella sedge or umbrella palm,Indian matting plant. This was native to Madagascar in Africa but quickly spread in many parts of the world.

This is commonly seen in rice paddies, pond, creeks,irrigation canals throughout the country. The umbrella palm is sought after for its impressive height that can grow to six feet. It creates a soft backdrop for shorter aquatic plants, but it can grow notoriously fast and spread if not put in a container.

21.) Eleocharis acicularis is a species of spikeedge known by the common names needle spikerush and least spikerush. This is common in most aquarium stores in Cartimar and pet stores.

20.) Echinodorus grandiflorus Commonly called spade-leaf sword, creeping burhead, Amazon spade leaf. There were at least 40 known species of this genus and quite common in aquarium trade all over the world.

It is native to Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina,Venezuela and Florida in the United States of America.

This plant species is quite common is rice paddies, water irrigation ditches, ponds, lagoon and garden center. Immersed plants readily produce flowers and seeds but it can be grown submersed as well.

Small plants are being sold between Php 25.00 to Php 400 depending on the size. Variegated plants are also sold for a little bit higher compared to the ordinary green leaf types.

19.) Lemma minor commonly called duckweed, or lesser duckweed. Lemna minor or the common duckweed works well as a water purifier. It can help to control algae.

Some of the economic importance of Lemma minor is used as animal fodder, bioremediator, for wastewater nutrient recovery, and other applications.  This is common in rice paddy fields, ponds, aquarium trade and lakes. It is also given as a feed to ducks, chicken and goose.

It is found in many areas of the world and have naturalized in Australia and South America. In aquarium trade, it is sold between Php 5.00 for a small cup to as much as Php 50.00

https://photos.app.goo.gl/iw3TC7PgmGpwUExR9

photo courtesy of pixabay: laila_-6779063

18.) Ceratophyllum submersum and Ceratophyllum demersum commonly known as the soft hornwort ,tropical hornwort, coontail or coon’s tail . This seems to have naturalized in almost all water system in the country.

Its fluffy, filamentous, bright-green leaves provide excellent cover for newly hatched fish. It is propagated by cuttings.

Sometimes they are so common that backyard hobbyist would give them away as freebies. They are sold between Php 10.00 to Php 50.00 depending on size in online sites.

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photo courtesy of pixabay : loilamtan-4659988/

17.) Hydrocotyle vulgaris, also known as common pennywort, whorled marsh pennywort, shield pennywort, pennyworth, money plant, lucky plant, copper coin, mangkok, Yahong-yahong is a flowering plant found in Europe, North Africa, North Ans Western Asia. This may have been introduced during the late Spanish colonial rule or early American regime in the country.

Sometimes people would mistake this as gotu kola (Centella asiatica), since the leaves are almost the same.  They are sold between Php 20.00 to Php 50.00 in online sites depending on how big the plant.

16.) Azolla pinnata is a species of aquatic fern known by several common names, including mosquito fern, feathered mosquito fern and water velvet. This is common in rice fields and waterways.

15.) Cabomba carolina – This is originally found as an aquatic perennial herbaceous plant native to North and South America. However human migration and introduction spread this water plant in many parts of the world. To some extent, invasive species in Australia, Europe and many parts of tropical, sub-tropical area, temperate areas.

14.) Bacopa monnieri is creeping herb native to the wetlands of southern and Eastern India, Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America. Common names are water hyssop,waterhyssop, brahmi, thyme-leafed gratiola, herb of grace,and Indian pennywort.

13.) Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia is a native to the Philippines and commonly sold in tropical aquarium trade. Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia is considered easy to cultivate and will grow in moderately hard water if necessary, though it grows naturally in slightly soft water. It prefers moderate to low levels of light.

This water plant is found in Negros, Panay islands in the Visayas and Southwestern part of Luzon. This is also found in the Bicol region. Some of the problems encountered by local aquarium hobbyists is the over harvesting, water pollution of this species.

12.) Rotala rotundifolia is found in many South-East Asian countries has long, thin leaves and 15-30 long stems, 2-3 cm wide including the leaves. Unlike other Rotala species it is relatively undemanding, although it needs good light to produce red leaves.

11.) Salvinia it is a species of floating fern and is related to the other water ferns, including the mosquito fern Azolla. There were about 12 species are recognized with at least 3 are known to be hybrids. This is commonly seen in ponds, rice fields, water ways, pond, irrigation canals and popular in aquarium trade.

10.) Vallisneria genus was named after an Italian (Antonio Vallisner who lived from  May 3, 1661 – Padua to January 18, 1730) He was an Italian medical scientist, physician and naturalist.

2.) Pistia stratiotes commonly called kiapo, kiyapo, quiapo, kuyapo, cuyapo, apon, loloan, water lettuce, water cabbage, tropical duckweed, Nile cabbage or shellflower- Water lettuce is among the world’s most productive freshwater aquatic plants and considered an invasive species in other countries.

In some countries like India ( famine food), Southern parts of China and Africa. Young leaves are usually boiled to remove the acridity from calcium oxalate crystals.

The district of Quiapo in downtown Manila and the town of Cuyapo in Nueva Ecija was name after this plant. There were abundant kiyapo growing the creeks and river tributaries. Some local garden center sells Pistia stratiotes between Php 10.00 to Php 75.00 depending on the size.

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Eichhornia crassipes or Water hyacinth

1.) Eichhornia crassipes, known as water hyacinth or incorrectly called water lily is an aquatic plant native to the Central and South American countries.

Water hyacinth was introduced to the country by the Spaniards in the late 16th century in the country, It is now found in many parts of the world. Sometimes people would incorrectly called this was water lily and a festival is celebrated yearly in Las Piñas City.

Sipag Villar Foundation provides livelihood opportunity to women by helping them make products from water hyacinth. There are many uses of the stems such as wreath, baskets, mats, woven bags, tissue holder and slippers. Their livelihood advocacy had spread in many areas of the country.

However in many parts of the globe, this plant is considered as invasive species.

Bibliography, Sources and References:

Personal Interviews : Mr. Jose Juan Paraiso, Mr. Achilles Antiquina Lussier, Mr. Aira Certeza, Mr. Edwin Aytona, Architect Andrew Patrick Gozon, Ms. Marge Hermoso, Mr. Joselito Flores and Ms. Lily Chin

Yeow Chin Wee,Marshal Cavendish Times Editions; Revised Edition edition (2005),Ferns of the Tropics: ISBN-10: 9812611797, ISBN-13:978-9812611796

The anti-aging effects of Ludwigia octovalvis on Drosophila melanogaster and SAMP8 mice / Wei-Sheng Lin, Jun-Yi Chen, Jo-Chiao Wang, Liang-Yu Chen et al / Age (Dordr), Apr 2014; 36(2): 689-703 / doi:  10.1007/s11357-013-9606-z

Slocum, Perry D., Timber Press, Incorporated; 1st ed. edition (February 1, 2005)Waterlilies and Lotuses: Species, Cultivars, and New Hybrids : ISBN-10:0881926841, ISBN-13:978-0881926842

Randall, Karen A., Sunken Gardens:Timber Press (February 14, 2017) A Step-by Step Guide to Planting Freshwater Aquariums, ISBN-10: 1604695927, ISBN-13: 978-1604695922

Pistia stratiotes” USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, and NOAA Great Lakes Aquatic Non-indigenous Species Information System, Ann Arbor, MI.

“Lemna System for Wastewater Treatment”. National Environmental Technology Applications Corporation. 412: 826–5511.

Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan. Norrlinia 24: 1-166.

Lansdown, R.V. 2014. Hydrocotyle vulgaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T164201A42415437.

Lambert Derek, Quick Graham, Swindells Philip. CompanionHouse Books; First Trade Paper edition (September 1, 2006): ISBN-10 :1931993815, ISBN-13:978-1931993814

Jain, S. K. (1990).Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Lemna minor L. for removal of lead and zinc from polluted water. Water Research 24:2 177-83.

Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.

Hiscock, Peter: Interpet Ltd (April 30, 2005). Mini Encyclopedia of Aquarium Plants, ISBN-10 :1842861042, ISBN-13:978-1842861042

Hassler, Michael & Schmitt, Bernd (January 2020). “Leptochilus pteropus“. Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World. Version 8.20. Retrieved 2020-02-11.

Hasan, M.R. (2009). “Use of algae and aquatic macrophytes as feed in small-scale aquaculture – a review”. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper.

Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Garai, S; Mahato, SB; Ohtani, K; Yamasaki, K (2009). “Dammarane triterpenoid saponins from Bacopa monnieri“. Can J Chem. 87 (9): 1230–1234.

Dkhar J, Kumaria S, Rama Rao S, Tandon P (2012) Sequence characteristics and phylogenetic implications of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS) in the genus Nymphaea with focus on some Indian representatives. Plant Systematics and Evolution 298: 93–108.

Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater. 1994. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. 6: i–xvi, 1–543. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Fl. Mesoamer.. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F.

Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija website

Coetzee, J., M. Hill, M. Julien, T. Center, and H. Cordo. 2009. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms–Laub. (Pontederiaceae). Pages 183–210 in R. Muniappan, G. V. P. Reddy, and A. Raman, eds., Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Christenhusz, Fay, and Chase (2017). Plants of the World: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Vascular Plants. University of Chicago Press. p. 188.

C. Kasselmann. 2011. Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vellozo) Verdcourt var. santacatarinense Kasselman, var. nov. (Haloragaceae). Aqua Planta 36 (4): 128-133.

Brunner, Gerhard. 1973. Aquarium Plants. T.F.H. Publ., N.J.

Bogner, J., 1990. Filipino Cryptocoryne. Aquarist & Pondkeeper January 1990 : 38.

Aquascape Lifestyles Book, The Pond Guy Publications; 1st edition (January 12, 2007)The Hobbyyist’s Guide to Pond Plants : ISBN-10:097865062X : ISBN-13: 978-0978650629

Anderson, Lars, and Pat Akers. “Spongeplant: A New Aquatic Weed Threat in the Delta.” Cal-IPC News 19.1 (2011): 4-5. Print.

 

Vintage Mount Rushmore Postcard

Mount Rushmore is an iconic monument in South Dakota state of the United States of America. This popular landmark is always featured in postcards, photos and memorabilia items along with Arlington cemetery, Both monuments serves as a living testaments of the bravery and heroism of the Americans.

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Mount Rushmore postcard -probably printed around 1960’s

I got this postcard from a fellow postcard collector few years ago from a local stamp collecting club meeting at the iconic Manila Central Post Office.

Mount Rushmore

Mount Rushmore is located in Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota and the project execution from 1927 to 1941, a period of about 14 years. The sculptor of the project was John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941) ans was continued by his son James Lincoln de la Mothe Borglum (April 9, 1912 – January 27, 1986).

The sculpture bore the 60-foot (18 m) heads of Presidents George Washington (1732–1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919), and Theodore Roosevelt (1809–1865). The total project cost cost US$989,992.32 with at least 400 workers involved in the project.

At least 2 million tourists would visit the historic site every year and is one of the top 3 source of revenues of the state of South Dakota.

The iconic landmark was the site where the current president Donald Trump led the 4th of July 2020 celebration.

According to some critics, the local American Indians who consider the Black Hills to be sacred ground.

Happy 4th of July celebrations and Happy Independence Day !

Exciting New Flavors at Kreme Kurozato Stall in Goodwill Homes 1, Novaliches

Kreme Kurozato Milktea just recently re-opened their stall in Goodwill Homes 1, Barangay San Bartolome, Novaliches after closing from March 15 to late May 2020 during the Enhanced Community Quarantine (ECQ). The milk tea stall is a start-up business which opened last September 2019.

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Ms. Julie A. Casampol and Mr. Nico R. Wagwag staff of Kreme Kurazato

The origin of the name was Kreme– Creamy, Kuro– Black, Zato-Sugar in Japanese, But the inspiration was from Taiwan. The young proprietors were avid milk tea lovers and took a short course just to learn the craft. All the concept, logo and recipes of their milk teas were from the proprietors.

They decided to open Kreme Kurazato within Goodwill Homes 1 since they would take a short cut route from Kingspoint Subdivision,pass Goodwill Homes 1,California Village and Sierra Vista on their way to Damong Maliit, Novaliches, North Caloocan.

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Kreme Kurozato Milk Teas

While ordering pizzas from Primas Pizza Delivery along Katipunan Avenue within Goodwill Homes 1, we happen to pass the Kreme Kurazato Milk Tea and pause to buy their milk tea.

Since their opening, The milk tea stall had been receiving great reviews from fellow foodies, bloggers, vloggers, milk tea aficionados and residents living within the community.

Exciting New Flavors of Kreme Kurazato

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new flavors

Among the new flavors were Strawberry Cheese Cake, Oreo Cheese Cake, Blue Berry Cheese Cake and Thai Milk Tea.

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Winter Melon Cream Cheese

The future seems bright as there were clamor for more stalls. Kreme Kurozato can be book via LalaFood Delivery charge to the client. Among their well-loved milk teas are Winter Melon Cream Cheese which cost Php 125.00 and Okinawan Brown Sugar. It is not too sweet, the ingredients were made from premium items. Hence, it is worth your money and effort to visit the stall.

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Thai Milk Tea

My nephew told me that they would buy at least once a week at the stall, since there were many flavors.

Their customers demographics comes from all ages from Kingspoint Subdivision, Kasiyahan Village, San Pedro IX, Grand Monaco Villas, Goodwill Homes II in Barangay Bagbag. Goodwill Homes I, California Village, Sierra Vista, Doña Faustina, Greenheight Executive subdivision of Barangay San Bartolome, Torres Village in Barangay Nagkaisang Nayon, Barangay Caybiga, Damong Maliit, Deparo in North Caloocan and residents of Barangay Talipapa in Novaliches, Quezon City.

Note: Prices quoted in this blog were subject to change without prior notification. The author and his relatives are not stakeholders in this featured establishment. All post are the opinion of the author.

Kreme Kurozato Milk Tea

Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/kremeSo /

Address: Block 5 Lot 3P Goodwill Homes 1, Barangay San Bartolome, Novaliches Quezon City

Operations: Everyday from 10:00 am to 8:00 pm

Safety Protocols Set at the Re-Opening of Manila Hotel

Manila Hotel which is our national patronage will partially reopens in time for the 108th anniversary with upgraded hygiene measure, safety protocols, for guest safety and other mandated guidelines set by IATF.

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TMH Lobby: The Grand Lobby of the historic Manila Hotel will light up again soon as the hotel partially reopens to accept guests beginning July 3, 2020

Manila Hotel’s 108th Special Promo

Manila hotel launches special anniversary promo that gives the first 108 customers for the first 108 days of its reopening (including Saturdays and Sundays) a special dining rate of only Php1,250 for lunch, and only Php1,550 for dinner. Café Ilang Ilang likewise returns with a new system for dining where guests can “order and eat all you can,” meaning they can order as much food as they want from the selection of dishes at a fixed price meals.

Delicatessen resuming operations on July 3, 2020. A rebirth of sorts after months of following the government’s quarantine protocols, the hotel has adjusted along with the rest of the world in navigating the “new normal,” and puts a high premium on the well-being of guests.

With the lobby shining bright anew signifying eternal hope, The Manila Hotel commemorates its 108th founding anniversary on July 4 by welcoming guests with an enduring brand of service that is now focused on enhanced health, hygiene, and sanitation protocols in line with Department of Health (DOH) guidelines.

Safety Measures

As the hotel prepares for the reopening, Atty Joey Lina, the president of The Manila Hotel assures the public, “You are safe here. We have taken every precaution to heart so you and your loved ones can have peace of mind when you visit or stay with us.”

Café Ilang Ilang and the Lobby Lounge will be open with limited seating capacity. Thorough sanitation procedures will be implemented, guests can order using disposable menu, eat using cutlery in sealed containers, and even use tables with acrylic dividers.

Front-facing personnel communicating with guests like Guest Services Officers (GSOs) and waiters will don masks, gloves, and face shields. To limit contact with guests, Café Ilang -Ilang is also fine-tuning its contact-less ordering and payment system.

High-traffic public areas will have hygiene reminder signages, distance indicators, and guests will be asked to undergo mandatory temperature checks, health declaration procedure and protocols will be in place. Limited capacity will also be implemented in elevators, while several hotel facilities will remain closed including the spa, swimming pool, gym, and other areas.

High-touch points like door handles, elevator buttons, public area furniture, and others will be sanitized multiple times per day using UV technology. Tests reveal that UV sanitation greatly reduces the bacteria count on surfaces, as demonstrated by lower RLU readings—whose value is used as a measure of surface cleanliness—after the procedure.

Barring announcements from the government to the contrary, the hotel also plans to start accepting room bookings by August 2020. The public will be assured of rooms thoroughly cleaned first with UV-C light technology to eliminate germs, bacteria, and viruses; followed by medical-grade sterilizing and disinfecting solution. A change of fresh and sanitized linens; sanitation of touch points in the room including remote controls, lamps, etc.; and thorough bathroom disinfection are also art of the procedure. Guests will also receive personal wellness kits, issued a UV-sanitized keycard, and arrive to guestrooms with a seal of assurance that they are the first to enter the sanitized environment.

Because taking care of its own people means they can take better care of guests, The Manila Hotel has invested on testing its staff upon return to work to ensure they are healthy. The culinary team strictly adheres to stringent protocols on proper hygiene, hand washing, food handling and preparation of foods. Staff will be required to wear PPEs as needed. While strict implementation of distancing measures will be done in the offices, front desk, and other areas frequent by guests.

The Manila Hotel looks forward to welcoming both loyal and new guests with the kind of service it is known for, with the assurance that “YOU ARE SAFE HERE” is not just a tagline but a commitment it truly means to uphold.

The “Grand Old Dame ” of Philippine hotels is back serving everyone with safety measures set.

Tales of Caladium in the Philippines

Caladium is a genus of  highly ornamental  plant variety which belongs to Araceae. It is closely related to Alocasia, Colocasia, Xanthosoma which originates from Central and South America.

There were at least 1,000 known cultivar hybrids and every year additional plants are named by different plant breeders from all over the world.

IMAGECaladium planted in a terracotta pot- some people believed that it brings good luck 

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Caladium or Corazon de Maria growing in a pocket garden in Quezon City

Caladium in the Philippines

Caladiums were locally called under different names Gabi-Gabihan, Corazon de Maria, Puso ni Maria, Corazon de Amor, Puso-Pusoan, Heart of Jesus, Angel Wings or Elephant Ear.

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Caladium or Puso ni Maria grown in a pocket garden

Corazon de Amor / Corazon de Maria/ Gabi-Gabihan/ Puso-Pusoan or Caladiums was introduced from Acapulco, Mexcio to Manila during the galleon trade. Some of the early cultivars escaped cultivation, grew in almost s emi-wild state in coconut plantations, humid places, vacant lot, cemeteries, near streams and creeks.

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old variety of Corazon de Maria, Puso ni Maria or Caladium growing in almost unattended state in a vacant lot in Quezon City

Caladiums quickly became popular foliage plants for shady or semi-shaded gardens. Each leaf seems to be painted with striking combinations of green, white, pink, red, orange and its color markings are given much importance by collectors.

Economic Importance

Corazon de Maria/ Corazon de Amor/ Puso ni Maria/ Caladium are widely used for potted plants, landscaping purposes and as indoor plant. In the Bicol region, Caladium rhizomes are sometimes eaten during times famine and calamities were food is scare. Some Bicolanos tend to boil the rhizomes to remove the itchy calcium oxalate crystals. Slowly cooking the rhizomes in a combination of coconut milk ( gata), chopped chilies, small shrimp or bagoong alamang, similar to ginataang laing.

Some growers believe that these plants bring good luck and invites good chi among growers. Countless of local growers would swear that it bought them some luck.

Magaan ang dating ng pera sa aming negosyo noong nagtanim kami niyan malapit sa aming bahay“.

Smooth transaction and money came fast in our business, when we planted Caladiums near the entrance of our house. This was according to Mrs. Piling Marquez of Caloocan City.

Costa Farm is one of the bigger ornamental plants which grew Caladium in big numbers. In the southern parts of the United States and sub-tropical areas, They are sometimes grown in greenhouses or as an indoor plants. K. van Bourgondien Tropical Plants from Netherlands also specializes in selling different varieties.

Caladium plant craze became trendy in the country in several stages from late 1949 to 1950, early 1960’s, mid-1970’s, circa 1987 to 1988, short run in the mid-1990’s, 2009 to 2010, between 2015 to 2018. With newer varieties and colorful hybrids from other countries. There were some nice caladium plants exhibited at the Hortikultura Extravaganza 2016 which won top prizes.

Some local horticulturists like Mr. Lebon Ong, Sir Boyet Ganigan imported some Caladium varieties from foreign nurseries. Well- known farms and backyard growers  from the towns of Calamba, Bay, Los Baños, Laguna province. Mr. Mac Pagsolingan of Pangasinan had been growing and selling caladium for more than 10 years, Arids and Aroids and Mr. Carlo Cabunilla of Cebu are just few of the local growers.

IMAGECaladium- old variety which is common in many areas of the country

angeliicloset from Batangas province is an online seller which sells Caladium cultivar varieties ranges from Php 100 to Php 250 per uprooted plant. She had about a dozen or so varieties.

IMAGEphoto courtesy of pixabay user : sarangib-37542

In a recent FB post from MM, a new site selling old variety of Corazon de Amor for Php 2,500 raised some eyebrows among netizens, backyard gardeners and farm owners! This had brought some attention to the lowly and neglected old cultivar variety of the Corazon de Amor.

Care and Fertilization

The most important factors in caladium care are moisture and fertilization. Try to fertilize them with complete fertilizer will help strengthen the plants in order to produce adequate tubers for the following growing season. Caladiums need to be watered on a regular basis, especially during dry conditions.

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photo courtesy of pixabay Gaimard

These plants thrive in moist, well-drained soil and are generally happier in partial shade. When you plant caladiums, you should plant them about 4 to 6 inches deep and 4 to 6 inches apart.

Caladiums can be purchased as potted plants or dormant tubers. Their size depends on the variety. They are normally in active growth during the onset of the rainy season in the western part of the country and goes dormant during the dry season.

Caladium plants are not typically troubled by insects, but sometimes caladium plant pests  chew the leaves or cell sap.

Caterpillars and aphids can be problems. Your best defense against caladium plant pests is vigilance and constant monitoring.

 

IMAGEphoto courtesy of  pixabay -gildda-5239161

Caladium grow from tubers and the diseases of caladium plants are those that attack the tubers. Usually these diseases are caused by fungal pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia and Pythium species. Some caladium would require some shelter from monsoon rains and extra care in handling the tender rhizomes.

 

Bibliography and References:

Personal communications among backyard growers and farm owners.

Special mention to Mrs. Piling Marquez of Caloocan City, Mr. Mac Pagsolingan of Pagsolingan Garden.

Funk, V. A., P. E. Berry, S. Alexander, T. H. Hollowell & C. L. Kelloff. 2007. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 55: 1–584

Madulid, Domingo; Winner, National Book Award, Science, 1995. Revised Edition, 2000 with 388 pages. Araceae pages 84 to 85, Bookmark, Makati, A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants.

Steiner, Mona Lisa, PHD;Care, M &L Licudine Enterprises, First Edition 1952, Second Edition 1960, Third Edition 1986, Atlag, Malolos , Bulacan. Gabi Family page 144, Philippine Ornamental Plants And Their Care.