15 Fun Facts about Pothos

Pothos or Epipermum aureum and related species is now in demand. This a member of the of Aracea family that includes Caladiums, Colocasia, Xanthosoma which originates from Central and South America.

This highly ornamental plant is making a comeback, with dozens of new hybrids and variegated ones in the market.

Epipermum aureum or golden pothos at a plant stall within Goodwill Homes 1, Barangay San Bartolome, Novaliches, Quezon City

Prices used to be in between Php 25 to Php 75 for small hanging basket in Tabang-Guiguinto plant stalls in Bulacan. Almost the same price in Silang, Cavite few years ago, until the demand for indoor plant skyrocketed last year.

Some plant center in the province would give cuttings as freebies whenever one will bring large purchases. Plant enthusiasts sometimes called plantiquarians, plantitos, plantitas,halamanmoms, plantaddicts whatever would you prefer calling them, would swear that having pothos is on their bucket list of plants.

15 Fun Facts about Pothos

Pothos grown in large cement vat within Goodwill Homes 1, Barangay San Bartolome, Novaliches, Quezon City

15.) It is called “money plant ” by people living in the Indian subcontinent, Chinese, Taiwanese, Thai and some Southeast Asian countries. People believe that having one potted pothos can brings good luck, money or attracts positive chi inside one’s premises. This is also good in offices, condominiums and apartments which have minimal spaces.

14.) One can grow pothos indoors, preferably with bright indirect light, although it also will tolerate low-light conditions. Pale leaves means too much sun, and loss of variegation means too little.

13.) Pothos likes to have its soil dry out between watering. For potted plants dislikes soggy condition.

Epipermum aureum or golden pothos cling on branches on an acacia tree

12.) One can fertilize pothos on weekly basis with water soluble fertilizer brand that is available in the market preferably 1/4 to 1/2 the strength diluted. This is done after watering the plant. One can also apply Naturamin which is distributed by Harbest Agricultural Business Corporation based in Pasig. Another way to apply small amount of slow release fertilizer that is commercially available.

11.) This had various common names like golden pothos, hunter’s robe, ivy arum, money plant, taro vine, Ceylon creeper, silver vine, Solomon Islands ivy, marble queen, water vine among others.

10.) It is also referred to as devil’s vine because it is quite impossible to kill the vine. This plant can tolerate low light levels. Some areas like in Florida, Hawaii, Southeast Asia,Tropical America, India, Sri Lanka the Epipermum aureum completely overgrows the forest floor as well as the trunks of trees and block the natural vegetation.

9.) Epipermum aureum, the golden form of the species use to be native over Mo’orea in the territory of French Polynesia. Epipermun pinnatum is native to many parts of the country and south This is under the family of Araceae.

8.) This is now one of the most common house plant and was introduced in many parts of the world due to human activity. The plant became naturalized in many tropical,sub-tropical area all over the world. Among the big farms includes Costa Farm in the United States of America.

Pothos growing on a large tree within Philvirra Homes, Barangay Tandang Sora, along Road 20 Project 8, Quezon City

Locally, one can buy varieties of pothos in several online sites and established farms like Unigreen Farm in Batangas, Bulacan Garden, Tabang-Guiguinto plant stalls, Araneta Farmers Garden, Mindanao Avenue Garden Center, Quezon City Memorial Circle, Cedarhills Garden Center in Mother Ignacia Avenue,White Plains, Cartimar Plant Center, Neopolitan in Fairview, Pasig among others.

7.) NASA and other scientist made studies in the 1980’s on the effects of pothos indoor pollutants such as formaldehyde, trichloroethene, toluene, xylene, benzene, carbon monoxide and dust.

6.) Other genus like Scindapsus pictus commonly called satin pothos/ silver pothos or silver vine are also lump as pothos. This vine is widespread in many southeast asian countries. Some small leaf philodendron are also mistakenly sold as different cultivar variety of pothos.

5.) The vine can be propagated via nodal cutting planted in aquariums, placed on top of the aquarium and allowed to grow roots in the water. The plant roots can filter some nitrate.

For those living in Calumpit, Bulacan One can contact Mrs. Vivian Sumilang (0920-915-8975) or ( 0922-819-6414). She also have other ornamental plants for sale.

4.) It is popular in the Philippines with many schools, make shift altar, cemeteries, family shrines have pothos planted in clear bottles as water plant. According to some old time local horticulturists and backyard hobbyists. They have encountered this vine way back in the early 1950’s and was extensively featured in several magazines.

3.) The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) listed this plant as mildly toxic when ingested to pet dogs, cats and small mammals. Avoid letting your pet animals chew the leaves or any parts of the plant.

2.) Avoid constant touching the leaves and stems of Epipermum pinnatum and Epipermum aureum since parts of the stems and leaves contains calcium oxlate crystal which may cause general skin irritation.

1.) Leaves are used in general flower arrangement, ikenobo arrangement and adds color.

Sources, References, Bibliography, Interview:

Personal interviews – with Ms. Charita Gunao, Mrs. Leticia Cabiao, Mr. Lebon Ong, Mrs. Marilyn Montemayor, Professor Purita Marquez, Mr. Allan Marquez , Mrs. Vivian Sumilang

Royal Horticultural Society

Wolverton, B. C. How To Grow Fresh Air, Penguin Books, New York, 1997.

Wolverton, BC (1996) How to Grow Fresh Air . New York: Penguin Books.

Sawada, Ayako; Oyabu, Takashi (2008). “Purification characteristics of pothos for airborne chemicals in growing conditions and its evaluation”. Atmospheric Environment. 42 (3): 594–602.

Nauheimer, L., Metzler, D. and Renner, S.S. 2012. Global history of the ancient monocot family Araceae inferred with models accounting for past continental positions and previous ranges based on fossils. New Phytologist, vol. 195, p. 938-950.

Missouri Botanical Garden

Madulid, Domingo; Winner, National Book Award, Science, 1995. Revised Edition, 2000 with 388 pages. Araceae Epipermum aureum pages 89 to 90, Bookmark, Makati, A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants.

Steiner, Mona Lisa, PHD;Care, M &L Licudine Enterprises, First Edition 1952, Second Edition 1960, Third Edition 1986, Atlag, Malolos , Bulacan. Gabi Family page 142, Philippine Ornamental Plants And Their Care.

8 Practical Tips on How to Take Care of Portulaca Grandiflora hybrids

Portulaca Grandiflora popularly known at a variety of names which includes portulaca, sun rose, sun plant,moss rose, rose moss,moss-rose purslane,alembong,time flower,clock flower,table rose, Japanese rose, Vietnam rose, Mexican rose. Portulaca plants are native to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay.

In India,Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Philippines growers sometimes call them nine o’ clock flower,ten o’ clock flower or eleven o’ clock flower because the flowers open fully during this time. While in some parts of Latin America and in the country, Backyard hobbyists call this as flores alas diez which refers to the time the flowers open fully.

They have several species and colorful hybrids which looked like miniature roses.

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photo courtesy of pixabay:BarBus ( single petal variety)

Portulaca Grandiflora hybrids was introduced into the country in the late 1940’s. About that time there were several venereal diseases which spread in the country. One of which is Syphilis nicknamed (Vietnam Rose). Whether the name is related to this is open for argumentation.

Another story from an old time plant collector said that they acquired cutting which was introduced from Vietnam in the early 1950’s to mid-1960’s thus getting the name. It was common garden plant. The hybrids have single petal or multiple petals varieties.

It is favorite flowering annual plant in many countries in United States, Canada, Southern Asia, Southeast Asia, Taiwan, Latin America and Mediterranean region.
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carnation color (multiple petal variety)

8 Practical Tips on How to Take Care of Portulaca Grandiflora hybrids

8.) Propagation – The most common way to propagate Vietnam rose / Mexican rose / Japanese rose/ Sun Rose/ Moss Ross Purslane/ Portulaca is by cuttings and by seeds. Try to remove any buds or developing flower in the stem so that the plant can conserve its energy in producing roots. Seeds can take longer to grow.

7.) Water Requirement-Rose Moss is all time favorite among backyard hobbyists,local landscapers would plant portulaca hybrids in man made grotto,cement containers, terracotta pots, soft-drink plastic containers and as hanging pots. In United States, Canada and Latin America, portulacas are use as hedge plant and planted en masse.

6.) Lots of Sunlight- Vietnam rose needs between six to ten hours of sun to reach their flowering potential. If you try to grow portulaca in a shady area, their growth will be limpy and will have some difficulty in producing flowers. One will also notice that flowers are minimal and close early in late afternoon and on cloudy days.

5.) Soil- The preferred ones are a combination of 30% loam soil with the rest includes combination of compost, sand,pumice,aged cow or carabao dung,aged rice hull, bits of crush charcoal and coco coir.

4.) Temperature and Humidity – A native of Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina, moss rose likes heat and can tolerate dry conditions. It is commonly used for xeriscaping, hanging plant, hedge or as focal point in pocket garden. In the Philippines, This is popular in many community garden, public schools, pocket garden, vertical garden and hedge plant.

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pink with shades of magenta ( multiple petal variety)

3.) Fertilizer- One can fertilize using any brand of water soluble fertilize 20N-20P-20K diluted between 1/2 to 1/4 strength sprayed over the foliage after watering on a weekly basis during their growing season. One can also put some slow release fertilize for those who cannot tend their garden in a weekly basis. Small amount of trace elements, calcium nitrate and epsom salt to boost its growth and blooms during rainy season. One can also add compost or vermicast which can also help in retaining soil moisture and nutrients.

Another good option is application of Naturamin which can help the ornamental plant to overcome stress like (sprouting, drought, pests and diseases). Try to dilute 3 grams per liter for matured plants. Once to twice a week spray in leaves and in parts of the plant.

Naturamin is available in Harbest Agricultural Business Corporation in Pasig and also had outlets located in Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao region.

Address: Harbest Main Office – No.5 Rosemarie Lane Brgy. Kapitolyo Pasig City Metro Manila.

Telephone : 6717411 to 14 Fax 671-22-32

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dark magenta color (multiple petal variety)

2.) Varieties – There are several hybrids available in the market. Varieties includes Afternoon Delight which flowers stays longer and even blooms up to nigh time, Yubi series, Fairy Tale series among others. A lot of the seeds packs and cutting are sold in several online stores and price ranges from Php 30 ( seeds pack) to Php 200 for several cuttings.

1.) Pests- Try to regularly check for caterpillars, aphids,mealy bugs, slugs and snails. During rainy season, Botrytis blight or gray mold is a fungus disease can kill the plant. The disease can affect leaves, stems, flowers, seeds or any part of the plant except the root. Brown spots and gray spores of dead tissue form on the plant. The best way to avoid getting the disease is by regular inspection of the plant and sterilization of cutting tools before using them.

Sources, References and Bibliography

Personal interview with backyard growers.

Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.

Missouri Botanical Garden: http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org

Madulid, Domingo; Winner, National Book Award, Science, 1995. Revised Edition, 2000 with 388 pages. Portulaceae pages 307 to 308, Bookmark, Makati, A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants.

Steiner, Mona Lisa, PHD;Care, M &L Licudine Enterprises, First Edition 1952, Second Edition 1960, Third Edition 1986, Atlag, Malolos , Bulacan. PURSLANE-Portulaca Family (PORTULACA Family) Page 193 to 194, Philippine Ornamental Plants And Their Care.

Kew Gardens: https://www.kew.org/

8 Practical Tips For Caring Hibiscus During Rainy Season

Hibiscus locally called as Gumamela is one of the top 10 all time favorite flowering shrub in the country. Growers can encounter some problems during rainy or wet season in the Philippines.

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The most common colors are red, pink, yellow,magenta and intermediate colors. There are some native hibiscus in the country, While hundreds of hybrids origin being cultivated in many homes, public parks, cemeteries, schools, resorts and estates. The flowers does not last long, most of the hybrid cultivars only last for a day or so.

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Hibiscus rosa-sinensis hybrid or Gumamelang Pula planted as hedge plant within Manila Memorial Park

Some Feng Shui practitioners recommend planting reddish color, bright yellow color gumamela. Depending on the position of one’s property to create harmony in colors and balance within the household.

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double petal pink Gumamela  ( photo courtesy of King Louis Farm and Sir Lebon Ong)

8 Practical Tips for Caring Hibiscus /Gumamela

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yellow color 

8.) One can grow their gumamela / hibiscus directly on garden plot or in potted terracotta/ plastic containers. This allows growers to move the containers in ideal location or focal point in one’s home or office when the plant is in bloom. Providing at between 6 to 8 hours of sunlight.

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Hibiscus Taiwan Cloud Cotton

7.) Gumamela requires 50% loam/garden/brown soil with combination of 20% sandy mix, 30% compost, aged cow or carabao manure, aged rice hull, coco coir and vermicast for the rest of the potting mixture. Mulching is recommended for gumamela planted outdoors because it not only provides a lot of protection for the roots, but it also helps the plant retain the moisture, especially if grown in garden type setting.

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peach color

6.) Fertilize weekly using a variety of water soluble fertilizer 20N, 20P, 20K or 10N-10P-10K, (whichever is available) diluted into 1/2 or 1/4 strength during its growing season or flowering season. One may add few teaspoon of slow release fertilizer or compost mixture as fertilizer for the plant. For blooming gumamela plants, a ratio of 20N-30P-30K water soluble fertilizer, trace elements, calcium nitrate, epson salt can also be applied alternately.

Another good brand is Naturamin which enables hibiscus or gumamela to absorb the nutrients. This is also good in other plants like Syngonium podophyllum, flowering plants, orchids, crops and fruits trees.

Avoid using skim milk, beer, Monosodium glutamate (MSG), urine or any home base fertilizer mixture as these can eventually kill your Gumamela or Hibiscus in no time.

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tangerine color

5.) Regular pruning is also required when the shrub grow lush during rainy season. One can schedule a monthly pruning period. Try to sterilize your pruning shears, knife or cutter before using them.

4.) Try to regular check for pest such as aphids, white flies, scale insects, mealybugs, caterpillars, thrips or even spider mites. These insects can eat parts of the flowers, leaves or stems of gumamela.

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3.) Potted hibiscus / gumamela plant with flowers can be enjoyed for a limited time period. Interior decorator suggest that one can put them inside their homes between 1 to 3 days. Near windows where there is bright light.

a humidity tray if you have dry air conditions inside of your house to ensure the plant is getting all of the moisture it needs to thrive.

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single petal yellow variety

2.) Propagation is quite easy. One can propagate via cuttings, air layering or seeds during the onset of the rainy season, or when one prunes their gumamela shrub. Find a node and cut about six-inches below that and then remove everything except the very top leaves. Another way is to graft different colored gumamela.

1.) Avoid over watering, Especially during this rainy season. This can cause a lot of problems like root rotting and fungal problems. When in doubt, one can forgo watering for at least a day or so. Gumamela needed well- drained soil if planted in garden type setting.

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pale pink form

Economic Importance and Ethno Botanical Uses

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Hibiscus Red Double

Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea while Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia. Hibiscus brackenridgei is the state flower of Hawaii, While it is a national symbol in Haiti, Solomon and Niue.

Hibiscus, Gumamela, Rose Mallow or Rose of Sharon and hybrids are commonly use to beautify the landscape.  Blooming gumamela can also serves as focal point in one’s office or public area.

The flowers is used by children in many parts of the country as part of a bubble-making pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed until the sticky juices come out, adding 1 tablespoon detergent to make bubble.

Some would use the flowers to make edible flower salad. Flowers and young leaves are also use by some for their medicinal properties. In some parts of the country, flowers are use for offering in home altars and as lei for welcoming guests.

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Hibiscus manihot or Abelmoschus manihot

Abelmoschus manihot formerly known as Hibiscus manihot is eaten in ( Quezon / Tayabas area) called Sapinit, Lagikuway. Bicol region and some parts of Ilocos region. Some Visayan provinces also use the flowers for souring agent in soup. In Surigao provinces it is called Lagikway, Lagikuway,Baniwayun. It is called Malaguhon / Malaguhun ( Han.) and Linikway/ Barakue ( Bng) Glikway/ Gikugguse (Sub) in other Philippine languages.

The flower is used as souring ingredient or add on for local vegetables, soup or meat dishes. The dish had a slippery texture like okra.

Although not so common within Metro Manila region. This species grow in semi-wild state in open grassland,cultivated fields and in rural areas all throughout the country.

University of the Philippines Los Baños had been active in breeding hibiscus and came up with several series which pay tributes to great women of the country.

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Php 8.00 block of 4, Gumamela flowers issued by Philippine Postal Corporation in 1991

Philippine Postal Corporation released several definitive and special stamps in 1991, 2015 and 2018. This is a proof that gumamela or hibiscus is popular among thematic stamp collectors. Some mural painters also painted on the long perimeter wall of Manila North Cemetery last October 2019 dubbed as ” Flores para Los Muertos“.

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yellow with red center

Hibiscus tea is an herbal tea made as an infusion from crimson or deep magenta-colored calyces (sepals) of the roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa flower. Sometimes called Karkade tea or Jamaica tea.

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Hibiscus sabdariffa popularly known as Roselle- grown by the author from seeds

There are also several Fb groups which specializes in Hibiscus or Gumamela.

Gumamela plants and hybrids are commonly available in many garden centers like in Tabang, Guiguinto,Bulacan Garden,Bay,Calamba,Los Baños in Laguna, Silang, Cavite province, Mindanao Avenue Garden Center, Araneta Farmer’s Garden, Quezon City Memorial Circle,White Plains garden center,Neopolitan, Fairview, Rona’s Garden in Visayas Avenue,Cartimar Garden Center in Pasay, Centris Sunday Market, neighborhood homes and backyard nationwide.

Some big time propagators includes Pagsolingan Garden, Arids and Aroid, Bulacan Garden, Mr. Rey Tester among others.

References, Sources, Bibliography:

Interview and photo courtesy of the following: King Louis, Mr. Rodrigo Joseph Bautista, Mr.Lebon Ong, Arids Aroid, Mac Pagsolingan,Mr. Rey Tester, Ms. Naida Delma and the author

Personal interview with backyard growers, hobbyists and farm owners.

Wonning, Paul R. (March 3, 2014) Gardener’s Guide To The Hibiscus: Perennial Hibiscus Flower Care ( ( Gardener”s Guide to the Full Sun Perennial Flower Garden Book 12) Mossy Feet Books.

V. M. Jadhav et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(8),1220-1222

University of the Philippines Los Baños : https://ovcre.uplb.edu.ph/

Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607

Steiner, Mona Lisa, PHD;Care, M &L Licudine Enterprises, First Edition 1952, Second Edition 1960, Third Edition 1986, Atlag, Malolos , Bulacan. Gumamela Family (Malvaceae) pages 173 to 174, Philippine Ornamental Plants And Their Care.

Madulid, Domingo; Winner, National Book Award, Science, 1995. Revised Edition, 2000 with 388 pages. Malvaceae pages 240 to 244 Bookmark, Makati, A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants.

Lawton, Barbara Perry (2004). Hibiscus: Hardy and Tropical Plants for the Garden. Timber Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-88192-65-45.

International Hibiscus Society

C Les Beers & Jim Howie: Growing Hibiscus (1985 and 1990), Reprinted 1986, 1987
Second edition published 1990, First published in 1985 by Kangaroo Press Pty Ltd
3 Whitehall Road (P. 0. Box 75) Kenthurst 2156, Typeset by G. T Setters Pty Limited
Printed in Hong Kong by Colorcraft Ltd, ISBN 0 86417 278 8

Brickell, Christopher, ed. (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 534. ISBN 978-14053329-65

Bulacan Garden Corporation

American Hibiscus Society

10 Ways to Take Care of Syngonium podophyllum

Syngonium podophyllum commonly called American evergreen, African evergreen, Whitefly, ,Goosefoot, nephthytis, arrowleaf, arrowhead plant.

These plants originated from tropical Mexico, Belize,Costa Rica,Panama,West Indies, Central and South America. This was introduced in many parts of the tropical, sub-tropical and even temperate countries as an indoor plant. Some cultivar had escape cultivation and have been considered invasive plant species in many parts of the world.

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Syngonium cling on a ficus tree

Syngonium are hemiepiphytes in their natural range and spends part of its life cycle as an epiphyte clinging on trees, poles even on walls.

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Syngonium flowers

The genus comes from the Greek words which refers to the fused ovaries of female flowers. In Belize and parts of its natural range, arrowhead vines roots and bark are used in traditional medicine for treatment of wounds.

plant are poisonous and can cause severe mouth pain if eaten due to oxalic acid. Purely grown for ornamental purposes.

This use to be commonly sold in many garden centers throughout the country for just few bucks. Due to the increasing demand of the African evergreen plants, Plant centers ,dealers and online sites sells this between Php 100 to Php 300 depending on the size and variety. This is also popular plant grown in dish garden and terrariums.

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Syngonium podophyllum growing on a ficus 

10 Ways to Take Care of Syngonium podophyllum

10.) Synognium and allies are related to Araceae family, Same family as Caladiums, Alocasia, Colocasia, Xanthosoma.

9.) For those living in temperate and sub-tropical climates, This plant prefers indoor temperatures of between 15 C to 18 degrees Celsius during winter time and between 18 to 32 degrees Celsius during summer time.

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Syngonium young leaves grown by the author

8.)Feng Shui practitioners consider Syngonium podyphyllum and allies which had a distinctive leaf as lucky plant to grow. Leaves changes from arrow shaped to a five lobed form as it matures. The five lobed shape represents the five elements; water, fire, earth, wood and metal thus provides the perfect balance of Yin Yang as the new leaves are shiny and the older ones are matted with patterns.

This also symbolize re-birth and reborn into another being. One can put this plant in entrance or main windows in homes or business establishments.

7.) Syngonium plants are not just decorative, they have the ability to cleanse the air you, breathe, act as anti-pollutants and can tolerate low light levels.

6.) These are propagated by cuttings rooted over water. Another way to propagate the plant is via air layering or seeds.

5.) Syngonium preferred in bright filtered light. It should never be subjected to direct sunlight, as that would scorch the leaves.

4.) Keep the soil moist during the growing period which occurs mostly in the rainy season. Allow the plant to dry out slightly between watering. Fertilization can be done during its active growth like applying any water soluble fertilizer brand at 1/2 to 1/4 the strength. Organic mixture can also be applied directly into the potting mixture.

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Adding Naturamin which can help the crop or ornamental plant to overcome stress like (sprouting, drought, pests and diseases). Try to dilute 3 grams per liter for matured plants. Once to twice a week spray in leaves and in parts of the plant. This comes in 100 grams and 1 kilo package. This is not just good for ornamental plants, but also for orchids, ferns, fruit trees, cacti, palms and vegetables.

Naturamin is distributed by Harbest Agricultural Business Company based in Pasig. The company also have satellite offices in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.

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Syngonium growing on a dead tree stump on partial shade

3.) This can be grown in partial shade – For those who have gardens, this can be grown in decorative containers or in terracotta pots with loose and rich soil. Avoid growing this plant in plots and in garden type setting, because this can spread and cover the ground in no time. This can be invasive and can spread in moist places.

2.) Regular pruning during rainy season which also coincide with their growing season will encourage new growths.

1.) There were 36 species with at least a dozen known cultivar varieties grown for indoor plant or horticultural trade.

Sources, References, Bibliography

Personal Interview: Growers and backyard propagators

Royal Horticultural Society of London

Madulid, Domingo; Winner, National Book Award, Science, 1995. Revised Edition, 2000 with 388 pages. Syngonium podophyllum, Araceae pages 99 to 100, Bookmark, Makati, A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants.

Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants / S Sosa et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 81, Issue 2, July 2002, Pages 211-215/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00080-6

Hernandez, J. (2007). In Hawaiian rainforests: exotic aroid ecologies. Aroideana 30: 91-97.

Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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